Hi, Alan here !
The following is a detailed wine making process, hope it will be useful for your wine making recipes.
1. Destemming and crushing
For whites, grapes are destemmed and crushed to break their skins and release the juice. For reds, the grape bunches can be wholly or partially pressed during crushing. For whites, the grape skins are soaked in the juice at ta cool temperature if the winemaker wishes to extract flavors and aromas trapped in the skins. For reds, this is done if the winemaker wants to extract more color from the skins.
White only: the juice is separated from the skins and other solids. White wine can be made from black grapes if the juice is separated from the skins as soon as possible.
The grape juice is pumped into stainless steel, concrete or fiberglass tanks, or, for premium styles, oak barrels, for fermentation. Fermentation temperatures are strictly controlled to preserve aroma, freshness and fruit flavors. Some winemakers allow wild yeasts present in the cellar to ferment the must though most prefer to use more predictable cultured yeast. The yeasts die and thus fermentation stops when all the sugar has been converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide, giving wine that is dry in taste. Cane sugar, beet sugar or concentrated grape juice is sometimes added before or during fermentation to raise alcohol levels.
Red only: after fermentation, the new wine is often left on the skins to draw out more tannin, color and flavor.
Red only: the juice is separated from the skins.
6. Malolactic fermentation
A secondary fermentation, brought about by the action of lactic bacteria, that converts tart malic acid into softer lactic acid and carbon dioxide. This can happen naturally, or is artificially induced via an injection of lactic bacteria. In some cases malolactic fermentation is definitely not wanted in certain white wines. Here, the new wine is filtered off its lees immediately after the alcoholic fermentation and is rigorously protected against invasion of lactic bacteria.
7. Oak aging
Premium styles are usually aged in oak barriques. The marriage between wine and wood is magical. The wine saps tannin, flavor and color from the oak and, because wood is porous, it allows the wine to breath, causing complex changes to its chemical make-up. Depending on the origin of the oak, the size and age of the barrel, its degree of charring and the length of time the wine spends in it, oak imparts extra dimensions of flavors to wine.
Red only: the wine is transferred from vat to vat, or barrel to barrel, to take it off its lees and to aerate it.
Different wines are often blended together. These may be different grape varieties or different batches of the same variety from the same year which have been vinified separately.
The wine is filtered off its lees. After filtering, both whites and reds are fined. This fining process can also happen naturally during a lengthy aging in the barrel.
11. Bottling and labeling
The wine is bottled, labelled and sealed with a natural cork, synthetic stopper or screw top.
Rose wines are produced in the same way as whites, only the red skins are left in contact with the juice a little longer to extract the pink color.
Sweet wines also undergo a similar process, but the juice is removed from the vat before the fermentation process is completed to ensure that sugars are still present in the wine. Fermentation is stopped by adding sulphur or through fine filtration.
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